During the latter part of the 20th century, illegal drug production for Western markets has developed and consolidated in various parts of Asia. The near entirety of the heroin consumed in Europe originates in Afghanistan, with major individual and societal problems in the countries of consumption. However, the production and smuggling of heroin causes even worse problems in the production and transit countries. In the states along the smuggling routes, narcotics affect the general health conditions of the population, with severe diseases including HIV/AIDS as a result. It also contributes to crime and social conflicts, exacerbates corruption and threatens sovereignty, fuels extremism and terrorism, and plays an important role in civil wars.
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The Institute for Security and Development Policy is a Stockholm-based non-profit and non-partisan research and policy organization. ISDP is dedicated to expanding understanding of international affairs, focusing on the inter-relationship between security, conflict, and development.